An earth dam is a dam built with highly compacted earth. Firstly, this type of dam is classified as a type of embankment dam, which they have built in the shape of an embankment or wedge which blocks a waterway. Secondly, these dams have built by various human societies for centuries. They continue to produced in some regions of the world when they appear to be suitable for the location and intended use.
Factor Influence Design
The characteristics of the particular site have a greater influence on the design of an earth dam. Therefore, they do other engineering structure and the location of the soils available for the construction of the embankment. They may dominate the entire design. Although in most cases the soils must be considered in conjunction with other conditions such as: the climate of the region, the nature of the foundation, the shape and the size of the valley.
The Fundamental in Designing an Earth Dam are:
- A study of all the conditions which may influence the design.
- A thorough exploration of the foundation and abutment. Although an evaluation of the quantities and characteristics of all the embankment construction materials available within a reasonable distance of the site.
- An analysis of the safety of the trail design and construction.
- The selection of possible trail design.
- The preparation of detailed cost estimation.
- The modification of the designs in order to meet minimal stability requirements.
- The final selection of design which seems to offer the best combination of economy , safety and convenience in construction.